IoT Network components

Cardware's wireless sensor network architecture(WSN)

The network architecture of all our IoT solutions is based on a WSN installation. The nodes are in most cases battery powered units using our ultra low power (ULP) microcontroller environment. 

The data communication is of a bidirectional architecture configured in a TREE topology. Nodes interact with the physical environment and transfer the information over a wireless connection either directly to the gateways or via intermediate data repeaters. ISM frequency sub-bands are used in case of indoor installations.

The bridge between the WSN installed onsite and a commercial telecommunication network infrastructure is the gateway unit (hub) which translates the information between local installations and our remote IT servers. Our gateways in most instances wireless, communicate over the GSM, 3G, 4G network.

The server side part of our systems includes three different main servers (a communication server, database server and application server).


Nodes

Nodes interact with the physical environment of the installation. All nodes have three main electronic circuitries: the interface part with sensors and/or actuators, the communicator part (the ISM radio frequency transceiver) and the power supply. Depending on the requirements of the application and the conditions specified by the particular installation, the components and the actual size and shape of the node can vary, of course.

Battery powered nodes are the most common variants. The ultra low power electronic design assures the longest possible battery life, even under heavy radio communication traffic conditions.


Depending on the particular application, nodes are equipped with one or more sensors. A local visual display (LEDs, LCD panels or e-paper displays) is added if needed for the task. 

The bidirectional radio communication our nodes are equipped with, assures the most flexible platform for IoT end-user applications.

Repeaters

Offering a cost effective solution to the market is of crucial importance. One of the highest costs of the service is the tariff of the mobile internet connection. Therefore, it is preferable to minimize the number of SIM cards in the system. Since the ISM frequency band has significant limitations regarding the output power of the transmitters, the achievable communication range, especially indoors, is greatly limited, data repeaters are included into the network architecture. Repeaters extend the communication range by receiving and re-sending the signals on the ISM band.

CardWare offers a number of repeater variants. The low output power has a 10 dBm transmitter. The high power (narrow band) variant has a 500mW output power that is normally adequate for all practical installations. Both versions are available with a single hop and  a multi-hop firmware.

Gateways

Gateways are the bridge between the onsite WSN installation and the commercially available internet connection. Data coming from nodes and/or repeaters are pre-processed, compressed and then sent over the GPRS, 3G, 4G mobile internet connection to CardWare's remote communication servers.

The unit includes a UPS with a back-up battery that ensures hours of operation in case of power blackouts.

Software

All CardWare's software is developed inhouse. The source codes of the firmware in nodes, repeaters and gateways as well as the server side communication software, database management and the end user's web based user interface are all owned by CardWare what makes us confident in our effort to fulfil all expectations of our business partners.



The end user applications are web based, our users only need a browser and internet access to reach the data.

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